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Developed in response to the ambitious RE targets established by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative, the Hawaii Solar Integration Study evaluates the operational impacts of high penetrations of solar PV (including both centralized and distributed PV) on the electricity grids of two Hawaiian islands: Maui and Oahu. The two islands provide examples of small power grids with differing levels of firm and RE capacity. The study examines variability, the ability to curtail power output, grid support, and load characteristics in the context of increasing variable RE on these systems. The technical reports underlying the summary are available here.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
The Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) commissioned this study of the ancillary services requirements for its system to accommodate up to 15,000 MW of wind energy. The Study evaluates and makes recommendations related to the methodology used by ERCOT to determine ancillary service needs; estimates the impacts of wind generation on the costs of ancillary services; and identifies changes to procedures related to severe weather conditions. ERCOT re-evaluated—and largely validated—the results of this study in a 2013 update.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This study explores technologies that can provide control of active power output from wind power. The study assesses how active power control technologies impact production costs, wind power revenue streams, and the overall reliability and security of the power system. The authors find that wind turbines have great potential to provide automatic power controls. However, careful market and control system design will be needed to realize these benefits.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report reviews grid interconnection codes that relate to the performance of wind turbines, as well as requirements that can validate wind farm and turbine performance. Also reviewed are modeling requirements for simulating the performance of wind farms in the power system. Specifically, the authors examine grid codes from the UK, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Texas, Canada, and Europe.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report details case studies of Spain, Germany, Denmark, and several balancing areas in North America and looks at the specific systems operational measures undertaken to integrate variable RE. The case studies examine how systems operators improved their situational awareness, ability to assess real-time reliability and risks, and decision support processes.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This manual provides detailed guidance for the facilities and controls maintained by the New York Independent System Operator, a regional transmission operator. It includes sections on operations monitoring, transmission operations, scheduling operations, and dispatching operations for all generation types.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This step-by-step guide provides a comprehensive overview of power system planning and describes the key planning implications related to variable RE deployment and integration, with a particular focus on implications for emerging economics. The second part of the report describes the considerations needed to accurately represent variable RE in energy models and suggests several cross-cutting solutions to improve capacity expansion modeling.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
DPV can be designed to supply electricity during grid outages. This paper presents approaches that specifically support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support resiliency.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
Germany leads the world in deployment of DPV, with PV generation contributing approximately 40% of peak power demand during some hours of the year. This article outlines the impacts of high PV deployment in Germany on grid stability and power flows in the transmission and distribution system. It also highlights practical solutions that Germany has implemented to support frequency and voltage control and reduce congestion, and suggests new voltage-control strategies.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
This filmed presentation summarizes a 2014 report from Ecofys. The first half of the video discusses the grid operation challenges that arise with high penetrations of variable RE. The second half of the video describes the various technical, regulatory, and market options for improving flexibility of the grid over the short-, medium-, and long-term. The Ecofys report includes factsheets on the following topics: Active Power Control (pg. 19), Demand Management in Industrial Installations and in Services and Households (pgs. 21-22), Electric Vehicles (pg. 23), Compressed Air Storage (pg. 27), Fly Wheels (pg. 28), and Batteries (pg. 29).
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
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