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ESIG—a forum for practitioners that provides resources for information on the status of wind and solar technology deployment—curates a list of grid integration studies and summary reports. Many reference documents for the studies cited in the Grid Integration Study Examples below (among others) can be found in this library.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This study analyzes the ability of the Eastern Interconnection of the United States, one of the largest power systems in the world, to accommodate high penetrations of wind and solar power. Using advanced modeling and computing techniques, the project team simulated the large-scale adoption of wind and solar energy at a temporal resolution up to 5 minutes. The study represents the cutting-edge of power system modeling, employing a high spatial resolution to include all synchronous components of the Eastern Interconnection. Results suggest that the Eastern Interconnection can reliably integrate upwards of 30% variable renewable energy in the power mix. However, meeting the 30% target will require increased balancing area coordination, incentives for transmission and generation to provide necessary ancillary services, and increased flexibility of traditional generators. In addition to the technical report, the full dataset as well as animations showing net interchange for two study scenarios are available for free download.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study examines the benefits and challenges of integrating significant wind and solar energy to the Western Interconnection, which covers the power system operated by the WestConnect group of utilities in Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico and Wyoming. The study consists of three phases. Phase 1 investigates the operational impacts of increasing the penetration of wind, solar photovoltaics (PV), and concentrating solar power to up to 35% in 2017. Phase 2 analyzes the wear-and-tear costs and emissions impacts associated with increased cycling by conventional generation due to wind and solar integration. Phase 3 evaluates the transient stability and frequency response of the Western Interconnection under high penetration solar and wind scenarios and identifies ways to mitigate adverse impacts through transmission reinforcements, storage, advanced control capabilities, and other mechanisms.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
The Eastern Wind Integration Transmission Study examines the operational impact of up to 20-30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection, one of the three synchronous grids in the contiguous United States. The study addresses a variety of issues related to wind energy and transmission development, including the costs, impacts, and enabling mechanisms (e.g., geographic diversity, forecasting, operating reserves) associated with significant wind penetration. A follow-on study, the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, is anticipated to be released in winter, 2015.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
Initiated by the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E), this study evaluates transmission-related challenges associated with four wind penetration growth scenarios (no wind growth from 2008 levels, best estimate of wind growth, optimistic but feasible growth, and growth when further grid enhancements are made beyond 2015). The study includes recommendations related to network finance, reinforcements, grid security and flexibility, consents, coordinated operation, grid code, network access rules, market development, offshore grids, and control of wind generation.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
ISO New England (which serves as the regional transmission organization for the New England region of the United States) commissioned the New England Wind Integration Study to assess the operational, planning, and market impacts of integrating up to approximately 12GW of wind power. The study finds that wind energy could supply up to 24% of New England’s total annual electricity needs by 2020 if the system implements transmission upgrades.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
The All Island Grid Study represents a comprehensive assessment of the power system on the island of Ireland to accommodate significant renewable energy penetration (including variable RE as well as dispatchable RE resources) by 2020. The study is divided into four “workstreams:” resource assessment, portfolio screening study, dispatch study, network study, and costs and benefits. The results include the climate change and energy security impacts, as well as the investment costs, associated with the RE scenarios.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
The Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) commissioned this study of the ancillary services requirements for its system to accommodate up to 15,000 MW of wind energy. The Study evaluates and makes recommendations related to the methodology used by ERCOT to determine ancillary service needs; estimates the impacts of wind generation on the costs of ancillary services; and identifies changes to procedures related to severe weather conditions. ERCOT re-evaluated—and largely validated—the results of this study in a 2013 update.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This study explores technologies that can provide control of active power output from wind power. The study assesses how active power control technologies impact production costs, wind power revenue streams, and the overall reliability and security of the power system. The authors find that wind turbines have great potential to provide automatic power controls. However, careful market and control system design will be needed to realize these benefits.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report discusses system operations and investment in liberalized electricity markets in which greater variable RE and energy efficiency resources are being deployed. It overviews current and foreseen challenges and possible policy and regulatory solutions to improve the cost efficiency and flexibility of the grid. Chapter 3 (pg. 36) outlines operational challenges associated with significant variable RE penetration.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
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