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This short report defines compensation mechanisms for grid-connected, behind-the-meter distributed generation (DG) systems as instruments that comprise three core elements: (1) metering & billing arrangements, (2) sell rate design, and (3) retail rate design. This report describes metering & billing arrangements, with some limited discussion of sell rate design. The report details the three possible arrangements for metering & billing of DG: net energy metering (NEM); buy all, sell all; and net billing.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
The 21st Century Power Partnership supports global power sector transformation. The Partnership has developed a curated, annotated resource library that provides reports, academic literature, case studies, and good practices to support distributed generation regulation in a variety of power system contexts. The library is organized around several topical areas: Ratemaking, Understanding Impacts, Interconnection, Alternative Business and Regulatory Models, Planning, and Case Studies.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
To enable informed decision-making and planning related to increasing levels of distributed PV resources, the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative facilitates knowledge sharing among its members about distributed PV interconnection practices, research, and replicable innovations. While the Collaborative itself primarily works with utilities and other stakeholders in the United States, its website hosts a collection of presentations, webinars, and reports that provide more broadly applicable information and case studies on interconnection practices.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
High penetrations of PV on a distribution system can lead to reliability impacts related to overload, voltage, reverse power flow, protection, and circuit configuration. Drawing on the results and lessons-learned from a five-year study of the Southern California Edison (SCE) distribution system from 2010 – 2015, this handbook presents a detailed analysis of the potential impacts and mitigation techniques of PV integration. Written for distribution engineers, the handbook also provides a model-based study guide for assessing PV impacts, covering topics such as model development, data validation and measurement, study criteria, and the steps involved in power flow and fault analysis. While the impacts and mitigation techniques described in this handbook are derived from research that focused on the integration of utility-scale PV systems (1-5 MW), much of the information is also relevant for the integration of a large number of small, distributed PV systems.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
The amount of time required to complete the distributed PV interconnection process can be a significant driver of interconnection costs to PV project developers, utilities, and local permitting authorities. Using data from over 30,000 residential and small commercial systems, this report provides insights from the United States (both nationally and in five states with active solar markets) on the length of time needed to interconnect and deploy distributed PV. The report assesses the number of business days required to 1) apply for and receive utility interconnection review and approval; 2) construct the PV system; 3) pass final local jurisdictional building permit inspection and submit permission-to-operate paperwork to the utility; and 4) receive permission to operate from the utility. It also provides insights on some of the drivers of the interconnection process timeline, which can be used to inform the development of interconnection procedures.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Value of solar is an emerging concept that provides a mechanism (e.g., rates or tariffs) for utilities to compensate customers who generate their own electricity through distributed PV, based on the benefits and costs that distributed solar provides or incurs to the power system. This report discusses program design options for Value of Solar tariff offerings and the impact of this type of tariff on future deployment of distributed PV. It also includes case studies from two utilities in the United States (Austin Energy and the state of Minnesota) that have adopted Value of Solar mechanisms.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Estimating the benefits and costs of achieving significant deployment of distributed PV helps power system stakeholders evaluate regulatory measures and compensation programs for distributed PV. To inform these decisions, this report describes current and potential future methods, data, and tools that could be used with different levels of sophistication and effort to estimate the benefits and costs of distributed PV from the utility or electricity-generation system perspective. Although the report is explicitly written in the context of informing estimation of distributed PV costs and benefits to the United States electricity system, the discussions of the various methods, level of effort, and data and modeling requirements provide insights relevant to power systems outside of the U.S. The report provides methodologies for estimating distributed PV benefits and costs for the following categories: energy, environmental, transmission and distribution losses, generation capacity, transmission and distribution capacity, ancillary services, and other factors.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
In anticipation of significant growth in distributed PV in India, this report reviews global and Indian policies and regulations for distributed generation; identifies technical challenges to significantly increasing grid-connected distributed PV; and makes recommendations for addressing power quality, safety, grid stability, and distribution system operation issues. The report provides an example of a country-specific review and synthesis of best practices to inform national and state-level technical and grid code specifications, advanced inverter functionalities, and meter technology considerations, certification, and testing processes.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
Technological innovations are supporting increased distributed solar penetration levels. One important innovation involves the use of advanced inverter functionality to address PV grid integration challenges, and, in many cases, may only require software and operations protocol updates of inverters currently in use. The report describes the use of advanced inverters to support voltage and frequency level control as distributed generation comes on and off-line. Policy and regulatory consideration to support advanced inverter deployment are also presented in the paper.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
To enable distributed PV that can supply electricity during grid outages, this paper presents approaches specifically to support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing storage technologies, community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support distributed PV that contributes to resiliency.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
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