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This study explores technologies that can provide control of active power output from wind power. The study assesses how active power control technologies impact production costs, wind power revenue streams, and the overall reliability and security of the power system. The authors find that wind turbines have great potential to provide automatic power controls. However, careful market and control system design will be needed to realize these benefits.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report presents a brief introduction to the IRP process as it has been implemented in the United States and describes the purpose and use of the IRP process. The report presents several case studies of IRPs and summarizes how they differ in terms of planning horizon, frequency of updates, representation of existing resources and planned retirements, and relationship with long-term procurement processes. The case studies include examples of best-practices for including renewable energy and energy efficiency considerations in the IRP process.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
The design of capacity markets is examined in order to provide recommendations for how Europe can best design these markets to encourage flexibility to address high penetration of variable RE. The authors offer several market design recommendations.
Located in Integration Topics / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
This document explores the benefits of expanding co-optimization of energy and ancillary services to hydropower. The author builds off of practices currently enacted for conventional generators and demonstrates that co-optimization improves the economics of hydropower plants.
Located in Integration Topics / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
This paper summarizes existing research on the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response. Energy efficiency measures and rate design can impact investments towards demand response measures (and vice versa). Using information gathered through interviews with program administrators, customers, and service providers, this paper suggests four ways to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs (combining program offerings, coordinating program marketing and education, enabling market-driven coordinated services, and developing building codes and appliance standards) and also discusses barriers and opportunities to facilitate coordination.
Located in Integration Topics / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
Capacity expansion modeling is a fundamental tool for planning the future power system. Capacity expansion models can provide insights on possible pathways for the power system under different assumptions about technology innovation, transmission expansion, demand changes, and policies. This report summarizes the experience of capacity expansion modeling at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The authors address in detail NREL’s approach to key questions that arise when modeling future capacity expansion, with a particular emphasis on modeling significant levels of variable RE deployment.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
As part of the U.S. SunShot Initiative—aiming to make PV electricity cost-competitive with conventional generation by 2020—this report analyzes the impact of high-penetration variable generation on the distribution grid, it demonstrates that in most cases DG can be safely integrated at much higher levels than interconnection standards allow. By streamlining interconnection processes, deploying advanced inverter functionalities, and coordinating DGPV, upwards of 350 GW can be hosted on the U.S. grid with little additional hardware. The report also outlines challenges to interconnection such as voltage regulation, power flow, and protection issues. It then studies the role of storage and complementary technologies to overcome reliability constraints. This research is applicable outside of the U.S. in demonstrating how to maximize an existing grid for DG.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
These slides describe the Flexibility Assessment Tool (FAST), which can be used to assess the flexibility of a power system. This assessment can help operators address the added variability and uncertainty associated with large-scale variable RE penetration on the grid. The tool specifically enables the examination of flexible generation, interconnection, storage, and demand-side management. Although these slides are intended to describe the FAST tool, they can also be used as a general guide for key steps to assess system flexibility.
Located in Integration Topics / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
FERC Order 784 is a final rule from the United States Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) that outlines revisions to its regulations to foster competition and transparency in ancillary services markets. The revision affects market-based rate regulations, ancillary services requirements under the pro forma open-access transmission tariff (OATT), and accounting and reporting requirements. The changes proposed also modify the accounting regulations to increase transparency for energy storage facilities.
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
This filmed presentation summarizes a 2014 report from Ecofys. The first half of the video discusses the grid operation challenges that arise with high penetrations of variable RE. The second half of the video describes the various technical, regulatory, and market options for improving flexibility of the grid over the short-, medium-, and long-term. The Ecofys report includes factsheets on the following topics: Active Power Control (pg. 19), Demand Management in Industrial Installations and in Services and Households (pgs. 21-22), Electric Vehicles (pg. 23), Compressed Air Storage (pg. 27), Fly Wheels (pg. 28), and Batteries (pg. 29).
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
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