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This is the 8th annual report from the United States Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) on demand response and advanced metering in the United States, based on publicly available information and interviews with market participants and industry partners. The assessment reviews penetration rates of advanced metering and communications technologies; existing demand response and time-based rate programs; annual resource contributions from demand resources; the potential for demand response as a quantifiable, reliable resource for regional planning; steps that have been taken in regional transmission planning and operations to ensure demand resources are provided equitable treatment as a quantifiable, reliable resource; and regulatory barriers to improved customer participation in demand response programs.
Located in Topics & Resources / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
This review examines several wind power forecasting models, including Wind Power Management System, Wind Power Prediction Took, Prediktor, ARMINES, and Previento. These models use physical, statistical, and hybrid methodologies. The authors examine the accuracy of the models and possible causes of error.
Located in Topics & Resources / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
This study explores technologies that can provide control of active power output from wind power. The study assesses how active power control technologies impact production costs, wind power revenue streams, and the overall reliability and security of the power system. The authors find that wind turbines have great potential to provide automatic power controls. However, careful market and control system design will be needed to realize these benefits.
Located in Topics & Resources / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
The Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) commissioned this study of the ancillary services requirements for its system to accommodate up to 15,000 MW of wind energy. The Study evaluates and makes recommendations related to the methodology used by ERCOT to determine ancillary service needs; estimates the impacts of wind generation on the costs of ancillary services; and identifies changes to procedures related to severe weather conditions. ERCOT re-evaluated—and largely validated—the results of this study in a 2013 update.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This document explores the benefits of expanding co-optimization of energy and ancillary services to hydropower. The author builds off of practices currently enacted for conventional generators and demonstrates that co-optimization improves the economics of hydropower plants.
Located in Topics & Resources / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
This study analyzes the ability of the Eastern Interconnection of the United States, one of the largest power systems in the world, to accommodate high penetrations of wind and solar power. Using advanced modeling and computing techniques, the project team simulated the large-scale adoption of wind and solar energy at a temporal resolution up to 5 minutes. The study represents the cutting-edge of power system modeling, employing a high spatial resolution to include all synchronous components of the Eastern Interconnection. Results suggest that the Eastern Interconnection can reliably integrate upwards of 30% variable renewable energy in the power mix. However, meeting the 30% target will require increased balancing area coordination, incentives for transmission and generation to provide necessary ancillary services, and increased flexibility of traditional generators. In addition to the technical report, the full dataset as well as animations showing net interchange for two study scenarios are available for free download.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
The Eastern Wind Integration Transmission Study examines the operational impact of up to 20-30% wind energy penetration in the Eastern Interconnection, one of the three synchronous grids in the contiguous United States. The study addresses a variety of issues related to wind energy and transmission development, including the costs, impacts, and enabling mechanisms (e.g., geographic diversity, forecasting, operating reserves) associated with significant wind penetration. A follow-on study, the Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study, is anticipated to be released in winter, 2015.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
Ancillary service market designs may require changes in systems with greater penetration of variable RE, particularly wind. This paper explores design considerations that take into account economics and engineering. The authors examine current market design, services pricing and cost allocation, changes to existing designs, and the potential for new designs. The report focuses on load following, frequency response, inertial response, and reactive power/voltage control.
Located in Topics & Resources / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
Initiated by the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E), this study evaluates transmission-related challenges associated with four wind penetration growth scenarios (no wind growth from 2008 levels, best estimate of wind growth, optimistic but feasible growth, and growth when further grid enhancements are made beyond 2015). The study includes recommendations related to network finance, reinforcements, grid security and flexibility, consents, coordinated operation, grid code, network access rules, market development, offshore grids, and control of wind generation.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
In anticipation of significant growth in distributed PV in India, this report reviews global and Indian policies and regulations for distributed generation; identifies technical challenges to significantly increasing grid-connected distributed PV; and makes recommendations for addressing power quality, safety, grid stability, and distribution system operation issues. The report provides an example of a country-specific review and synthesis of best practices to inform national and state-level technical and grid code specifications, advanced inverter functionalities, and meter technology considerations, certification, and testing processes.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
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