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This report examines the three forms of active power controls that wind may be able to support, including synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generation control regulation. These controls contribute ancillary services to the power system. The study analyzes millisecond timeframes to characterize the impact of using wind to provide active power controls on the lifetimes of large wind plants as well as on the broader power system. The authors explore the implications of active power controls on economics and power system engineering control design. They conclude that wind may earn additional revenue and reduce production costs to consumers by providing power control services, and that market design, reliability criteria, and engineering design will impact future opportunities for wind generators to provide these services.
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
This study explores technologies that can provide control of active power output from wind power. The study assesses how active power control technologies impact production costs, wind power revenue streams, and the overall reliability and security of the power system. The authors find that wind turbines have great potential to provide automatic power controls. However, careful market and control system design will be needed to realize these benefits.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
The Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) commissioned this study of the ancillary services requirements for its system to accommodate up to 15,000 MW of wind energy. The Study evaluates and makes recommendations related to the methodology used by ERCOT to determine ancillary service needs; estimates the impacts of wind generation on the costs of ancillary services; and identifies changes to procedures related to severe weather conditions. ERCOT re-evaluated—and largely validated—the results of this study in a 2013 update.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This report explores how various balancing areas in North America provide ancillary services and addresses regulatory institutional practices for maintaining system integrity. The report surveys different practices that balancing areas use to plan for and manage the provision of ancillary services and makes recommendations related to enlarging and/or increasing the coordination among balancing areas to provide ancillary services. The authors seek to clarify the balancing area rules that each entity much follow, and how the many balancing areas in North America can operate in a homogenous way to address ancillary service requirements for variable RE generation.
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
This document includes a summary of the Spanish power system schedule (page 5) and electricity price stacks with ancillary services broken out (page 13). The report also includes a chart showing the impact of wind on primary, secondary, tertiary, and supplemental reserves (page 27). Also included is a description of Spain’s RE generation control center.
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
The design of capacity markets is examined in order to provide recommendations for how Europe can best design these markets to encourage flexibility to address high penetration of variable RE. The authors offer several market design recommendations.
Located in Integration Topics / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
This document explores the benefits of expanding co-optimization of energy and ancillary services to hydropower. The author builds off of practices currently enacted for conventional generators and demonstrates that co-optimization improves the economics of hydropower plants.
Located in Integration Topics / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
DPV can be designed to supply electricity during grid outages. This paper presents approaches that specifically support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support resiliency.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
This study summarizes the results of an in-depth modeling of the U.S. Eastern Interconnection, wind integration study, and transmission analysis. The study examines various technical issues under a 20% wind integration scenario. Section 5 examines power system regulation and balancing, and Section 6 explores impacts on systems operation. The report assesses ancillary services that provide both spinning and nonspinning reserves and offer frequency response, balancing, and system security.
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
Ancillary service market designs may require changes in systems with greater penetration of variable RE, particularly wind. This paper explores design considerations that take into account economics and engineering. The authors examine current market design, services pricing and cost allocation, changes to existing designs, and the potential for new designs. The report focuses on load following, frequency response, inertial response, and reactive power/voltage control.
Located in Integration Topics / Ancillary Services / Ancillary Services folder
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