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Initiated by the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity (ENTSO-E), this study evaluates transmission-related challenges associated with four wind penetration growth scenarios (no wind growth from 2008 levels, best estimate of wind growth, optimistic but feasible growth, and growth when further grid enhancements are made beyond 2015). The study includes recommendations related to network finance, reinforcements, grid security and flexibility, consents, coordinated operation, grid code, network access rules, market development, offshore grids, and control of wind generation.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This report reviews grid interconnection codes that relate to the performance of wind turbines, as well as requirements that can validate wind farm and turbine performance. Also reviewed are modeling requirements for simulating the performance of wind farms in the power system. Specifically, the authors examine grid codes from the UK, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Texas, Canada, and Europe.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This manual includes the instructions, rules, procedures and guidelines that were established by the PJM regional transmission operator to support operations, planning, and accounting for both the regional transmission system and the PJM energy market.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
ENTSO-E defines a common set of minimum requirements for the European-wide power system. The requirements include load-frequency control and reserves principles to ensure the operational security of the system and cross-border cooperation between transmission system operators. The requirements may also dictate the characteristics of the grid-connected systems, consumption, and distribution systems. The code addresses the load-frequency structure, operational rules, quality criteria, reserve dimensions and exchange, sharing and distribution, and monitoring.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This document outlines the process ENTSO-E has undertaken to develop network codes that define security and reliability, connection, third-party access, data exchange and settlement, interoperability, operational procedures in an emergency, capacity allocation and congestion management, trading and related technical and operational provisions, transparency, balancing, harmonizing transmission tariff structures, and energy efficiency. The network codes’ characteristics, the role within the development process, the process itself, interpretation of the rules, and a process for maintaining the codes are included.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This manual provides detailed guidance for the facilities and controls maintained by the New York Independent System Operator, a regional transmission operator. It includes sections on operations monitoring, transmission operations, scheduling operations, and dispatching operations for all generation types.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This paper focuses on foundational rate design principles that are typically associated with conventional meters. Despite growing deployment of smart meters, most electricity customers are served by conventional meters. The wide variety of pricing practices discussed in this paper highlight global case studies that have exhibited the ability to enable system operators to send price signals that alter retail customer behavior, affect needed capital improvements, and influence a utility’s capital investments.
Located in Integration Topics / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
This report provides policymakers with a detailed look at a fourteen regulatory, policy, market-based, and load-targeting mechanisms that are emerging as effective practices for increasing the use of demand side resources. Based on research in several countries, the highlighted mechanisms—some aimed at vertically-integrated power sectors, some at liberalized market systems, and some at both—are designed to break down the economic and institutional barriers to investment in clean energy resources on the customer’s side of the meter. Specific suggestions include mandating time-varying pricing structure, encouraging implementation of demand side management technologies through incentives and mandates, and enabling financing mechanisms and markets for development of these systems, all as a part of guiding the transformation toward improved demand side management in the power system.
Located in Integration Topics / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
This paper summarizes existing research on the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response. Energy efficiency measures and rate design can impact investments towards demand response measures (and vice versa). Using information gathered through interviews with program administrators, customers, and service providers, this paper suggests four ways to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs (combining program offerings, coordinating program marketing and education, enabling market-driven coordinated services, and developing building codes and appliance standards) and also discusses barriers and opportunities to facilitate coordination.
Located in Integration Topics / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
The 21st Century Power Partnership supports global power sector transformation. The Partnership has developed a curated, annotated resource library that provides reports, academic literature, case studies, and good practices to support distributed generation regulation in a variety of power system contexts. The library is organized around several topical areas: Ratemaking, Understanding Impacts, Interconnection, Alternative Business and Regulatory Models, Planning, and Case Studies.
Located in Integration Topics / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
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