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This study explores technologies that can provide control of active power output from wind power. The study assesses how active power control technologies impact production costs, wind power revenue streams, and the overall reliability and security of the power system. The authors find that wind turbines have great potential to provide automatic power controls. However, careful market and control system design will be needed to realize these benefits.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report discusses system operations and investment in liberalized electricity markets in which greater variable RE and energy efficiency resources are being deployed. It overviews current and foreseen challenges and possible policy and regulatory solutions to improve the cost efficiency and flexibility of the grid. Chapter 3 (pg. 36) outlines operational challenges associated with significant variable RE penetration.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report, commissioned by the Western Governors’ Association in the United States, provides an assessment of system operational measures that could reduce costs of wind and solar integration to the end-users. The report identifies challenges to adopting these measures and recommendations for action at the state level. Especially useful are the high-level and accessible explanations of these operational measures.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report summarizes effective actions that countries have taken to integrate significant variable RE. It includes detailed case studies such as how Australia and Spain each developed and integrated advanced forecasting techniques (pg. 49 and 105), and how Spain allowed for larger balancing areas (pg. 104). The report explores additional topics and case studies, including Ireland, Denmark, Germany, and the United States.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report details case studies of Spain, Germany, Denmark, and several balancing areas in North America and looks at the specific systems operational measures undertaken to integrate variable RE. The case studies examine how systems operators improved their situational awareness, ability to assess real-time reliability and risks, and decision support processes.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This manual includes the instructions, rules, procedures and guidelines that were established by the PJM regional transmission operator to support operations, planning, and accounting for both the regional transmission system and the PJM energy market.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This step-by-step guide provides a comprehensive overview of power system planning and describes the key planning implications related to variable RE deployment and integration, with a particular focus on implications for emerging economics. The second part of the report describes the considerations needed to accurately represent variable RE in energy models and suggests several cross-cutting solutions to improve capacity expansion modeling.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
Capacity expansion modeling is a fundamental tool for planning the future power system. Capacity expansion models can provide insights on possible pathways for the power system under different assumptions about technology innovation, transmission expansion, demand changes, and policies. This report summarizes the experience of capacity expansion modeling at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The authors address in detail NREL’s approach to key questions that arise when modeling future capacity expansion, with a particular emphasis on modeling significant levels of variable RE deployment.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
This report presents a brief introduction to the IRP process as it has been implemented in the United States and describes the purpose and use of the IRP process. The report presents several case studies of IRPs and summarizes how they differ in terms of planning horizon, frequency of updates, representation of existing resources and planned retirements, and relationship with long-term procurement processes. The case studies include examples of best-practices for including renewable energy and energy efficiency considerations in the IRP process.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
This article provides an overview of the traditional power system planning process in the United States, summarizes how legal authority for transmission planning is allocated between states and the U.S. government, and evaluates the challenges and solutions that state regulators have encountered with planning new transmission for renewable energy development. In addition to a discussion about the important merits of increased balancing area cooperation for system operations and transmission planning, the article includes a detailed review of the Renewable Energy Zones transmission planning process as implemented in Texas’ Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) approach.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
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