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File Xcel CO Model PPA Semi-Dispatchable Resources 2017
Xcel Energy's model PPA for 'semi-dispatchable' resources, which are defined as intermittent generators combined with some form of technologies which mitigates intermittency issues (such as concentrated solar generators and thermal storage or solar photovoltaic with battery storage). The PPA outlines requirements concerning telemetry, ancillary services, forecasting and more.
Located in Topics & Resources / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
Energy Storage
Energy storage refers to technologies capable of storing electricity generated at one time for later use. These technologies can store energy in a variety of forms including as electrical, mechanical, electrochemical or thermal energy. Storage is an important resource that can provide system flexibility and better align the supply of variable renewable energy with demand by shifting the timing of energy supply and demand.
Located in Topics & Resources
Affordably integrating high levels of variable renewable energy (VRE) sources such as wind and solar requires a flexible grid. Storage and demand response provide means to better align wind and solar power supply with electricity demand patterns: storage shifts the timing of supply, and demand response shifts the timing of demand.
Located in Quick Reads / Fact Sheets
This report examines the broader role of hydropower in the U.S. power system in terms of both energy and ancillary services, and how these roles vary across regions, especially under the context of greater variable RE. The report looks at the drivers and barriers to hydropower generation within these markets.
Located in Topics & Resources / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
The report includes both a broader look at the European hydropower market as well as detailed flexibility case studies in the Nordic power system, Austria, Poland, Norway, Germany, Switzerland and Ireland.
Located in Topics & Resources / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
This document explores the benefits of expanding co-optimization of energy and ancillary services to hydropower. The author builds off of practices currently enacted for conventional generators and demonstrates that co-optimization improves the economics of hydropower plants.
Located in Topics & Resources / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
This report summarizes a three-year, U.S. Department of Energy commissioned study that assesses the value of hydropower to the U.S. power system for both pumped and traditional plants. The report includes an assessment of the current market structures and costs and ways to increase the value of hydropower.
Located in Topics & Resources / Flexible Generation / Flexible Generation folder
Standard IEEE 1547 is an example of an interconnection standard (commonly used in North American power systems) providing technical rules for interconnecting distributed generation resources with the electric grid. The standard’s guide introduces the background and rationale for the technical requirements, facilitates use of the standard by characterizing distributed resource technologies and related interconnection issues, and provides approaches and information to support interconnection and implementation. The standard was updated in 2014 with an amendment providing existing information on voltage, voltage regulation, and frequency.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
To enable distributed PV that can supply electricity during grid outages, this paper presents approaches specifically to support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing storage technologies, community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support distributed PV that contributes to resiliency.
Located in Topics & Resources / Distributed Generation / Distributed Generation folder
This report estimates the storage required to enable PV penetration up to 50% in California (with renewable penetration over 66%), and quantifies the complex relationships among storage, PV penetration, grid flexibility, and PV costs due to increased curtailment. The authors find that storage needs depend strongly on the amount of other flexibility resources deployed. With very low-cost PV (three cents per kilowatt-hour) and a highly flexible electric power system, about 19 gigawatts of energy storage could enable 50% PV penetration with a marginal net PV levelized cost of energy (LCOE) comparable to the variable costs of future combined-cycle gas generators under carbon constraints.
Located in Topics & Resources / Demand Response and Storage / Demand Response and Storage Folder
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