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This report reviews grid interconnection codes that relate to the performance of wind turbines, as well as requirements that can validate wind farm and turbine performance. Also reviewed are modeling requirements for simulating the performance of wind farms in the power system. Specifically, the authors examine grid codes from the UK, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Texas, Canada, and Europe.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This manual includes the instructions, rules, procedures and guidelines that were established by the PJM regional transmission operator to support operations, planning, and accounting for both the regional transmission system and the PJM energy market.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
As part of the U.S. SunShot Initiative—aiming to make PV electricity cost-competitive with conventional generation by 2020—this report analyzes the impact of high-penetration variable generation on the distribution grid, it demonstrates that in most cases DG can be safely integrated at much higher levels than interconnection standards allow. By streamlining interconnection processes, deploying advanced inverter functionalities, and coordinating DGPV, upwards of 350 GW can be hosted on the U.S. grid with little additional hardware. The report also outlines challenges to interconnection such as voltage regulation, power flow, and protection issues. It then studies the role of storage and complementary technologies to overcome reliability constraints. This research is applicable outside of the U.S. in demonstrating how to maximize an existing grid for DG.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
Traditional interconnection processes evaluate the impacts a distributed generator has on system safety, reliability, and power quality. This concept paper introduces “Integrated Distribution Planning,” an emerging alternative methodology designed to enable DPV. In the report, utilities and distribution system operators proactively study the hosting capacity of distribution circuits, the ability of these circuits to accommodate growth in DG, and any necessary infrastructure upgrades; all in advance of receiving interconnection requests from generators.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
IEEE 1547 was introduced in 2003 when DER penetration was low in most places. As some regions like Germany, California, and Hawaii reach higher levels of DG penetrations, alterations to IEEE 1547 are required. IEEE has fast-tracked the development of a full-revision of 1547 to maintain cross-system compatibility; drafts of the new version enhance the capabilities of DER to provide grid support, voltage ride-through, and reactive power modes for generators in high-penetration contexts. The updated version is currently an active draft, the full version will be released in 2018. 1547.1 provides engineers with interconnection system testing guidelines and will also be updated. Both 1547 and 1547.1 are recognized by UL 1741 and are to be used in conjunction.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
IEEE 1547 was introduced in 2003 when DER penetration was low in most places. As some regions like Germany, California, and Hawaii reach higher levels of DG penetrations, alterations to IEEE 1547 are required. IEEE has fast-tracked the development of a full-revision of 1547 to maintain cross-system compatibility; drafts of the new version enhance the capabilities of DER to provide grid support, voltage ride-through, and reactive power modes for generators in high-penetration contexts. The updated version is currently an active draft, the full version will be released in 2018. 1547.1 provides engineers with interconnection system testing guidelines and will also be updated. Both 1547 and 1547.1 are recognized by UL 1741 and are to be used in conjunction.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
UL 1741 provides certification requirements for DG equipment that operates according to the parameters established in IEEE 1547. The standard is used together with IEEE 1547 to provide comprehensive requirements for DG equipment and development.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
To enable informed decision-making and planning related to increasing levels of DPV, the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) facilitates knowledge sharing among its members about DPV interconnection practices, research, and replicable innovations. While the Collaborative primarily works with utilities and other stakeholders in the United States, its website hosts a collection of presentations, webinars, and reports that provide more broadly applicable information and case studies on interconnection practices.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
The 21st Century Power Partnership supports global power sector transformation. The Partnership has developed a curated, annotated resource library that provides reports, academic literature, case studies, and good practices to support DG regulation in a variety of power system contexts. The library is organized around several topical areas: ratemaking, understanding impacts, interconnection, alternative business and regulatory models, planning, and case studies.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
The U.S. state of Minnesota has enacted legislation allowing investor-owned utilities to use a value of solar tariff as an alternative to net metering for DPV. This document details the methodology participating utilities will use to calculate the value of solar tariff to account for several values of DPV (including energy and its delivery, generation and transmission capacity, transmission and distribution losses, and environmental value). The methodology includes detailed example calculations for each step.
Located in Topics & Resources / Regulation & Public Policy / Regulation & Public Policy folder
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