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This framework was developed to incorporate uncertainties associated with wind and demand forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) examines best practices for variable RE generation forecasting. The authors suggest using forecasts across timeframes and as close to real-time as is possible. The report focuses on forecasts from real-time to the coming 48-hours and how the forecasts can be best communicated to and utilized by system operators.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
Xcel Energy, a vertically integrated utility located in the United States, is a pioneer in incorporating state-of-the-art wind forecasting into system operations. Xcel Energy’s Model Wind Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) provides an example of a mechanism that enables the system operator to collect forecasting data (e.g., meteorological data, real-time power potential, and forecasted turbine availability) from wind power generators. Sections of the Model Wind PPA that relate specifically to data collection for forecasting include Article 10 (“Operations and Maintenance”) and Exhibit H, which includes a data list and protocols for automatic generation control for wind generators. In addition to forecasting considerations, the Model Wind PPA also includes provisions related to compensation for wind generators when Xcel Energy curtails wind output.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the U.S. (FERC) Order No. 764 is an example of a regulation that reduces barriers for variable RE by requiring transmission providers to offer sub-hourly transmission scheduling for their customers. The Order also requires new interconnection requests from customers with large variable RE to provide meteorological and forced outage data to transmission providers, in those cases where the provider conducts variable RE forecasting.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
This report summarizes the key changes to power system planning and operations that FERC Order 764 encourages. The authors outline the reasons why traditional electricity scheduling practices may lead to system inefficiencies in the presence of variable RE generation. While compliance costs for renewable energy producers are expected to be minimal, the report estimates that complete compliance by regional transmission operators and independent system operators will take many years to achieve due to challenges associated with cost allocation.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
In 2010, the United States’ Midcontinent Independent System Operator (MISO) began a process to work with stakeholders to design a new market mechanism that utilizes the benefits of wind energy and reduces the relevance of the non-dispatchability of the technology. This guide outlines MISO's approach to wind forecasting and practices to improve ramping capabilities.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
File Xcel CO Model PPA Wind and Solar 2017
Copy of the model PPA Xcel used for solar and wind in Colorado for 2017. Contains provisions for remuneration after curtailment, telemetry requirements and more.
Located in Integration Topics / Forecasting / Forecasting folder
Video Integrating Variable Renewable Energy into the Grid: Key Issues and Emerging Solutions
This webinar reviews the challenges to integrating significant quantities of variable renewable energy to the grid as well as the emerging solutions that policymakers, regulators and grid operators have taken to integrate wind and solar and meet renewable energy targets. Webinar participants learn about the myths, misperceptions, costs and options for scaling up grid-connected renewable energy, as well as the Greening the Grid website and technical assistance opportunities.
Located in Trainings
New Resource - An Introduction to Grid Services: Concepts, Technical Requirements, and Provision from Wind
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has released a new report titled "An Introduction to Grid Services: Concepts, Technical Requirements, and Provision from Wind". The report details the issues surrounding the provision of key ancillary services for grid reliability and stability by wind energy generators.
Located in News and Events
Image Pascal source code Kazakhstan Wind Resource Map
Kazakhstan wind speed at 80m
Located in Where We Work / Pictures for Where We Work countries
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