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Analysis of Indian Electricity Distribution Systems for the Integration of High Shares of Rooftop PV

India has a target of 40 GW of rooftop PV by 2022. The study intends to provide an overview of the characteristics of the Indian power system and its challenges with regard to a significant increase in rooftop PV, as well as a template for distribution companies on how to manage rising PV shares, which studies to conduct and which technology options to select.

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Grid-Integrated Distributed Solar: Addressing Challenges for Operations and Planning

Integrating DPV on a distribution system poses both unique challenges and opportunities. This factsheet reviews the barriers and provides best practices when operating and planning for distributed solar.

Grid-Integrated Distributed Solar: Addressing Challenges for Operations and Planning - Read More…

High-Penetration PV Integration Handbook for Distribution Engineers

When not properly addressed, high penetrations of DPV on a distribution system present issues like voltage overload, reverse power flow, and protection failure, which threaten system reliability. Drawing upon results from a five-year study of the Southern California Edison (SCE) distribution system, this handbook presents a detailed analysis of the potential impacts and mitigation techniques when integrating DPV. Written for distribution engineers, the handbook also provides a study guide for modeling and assessing PV impacts, covering topics such as model development, data validation and measurement, study criteria, and the steps involved in power flow and fault analysis. While the impacts and mitigation techniques described in this handbook are written for utility-scale PV systems (1-5 MW), much of the information is also relevant for the proliferation of smaller, DPV systems.

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Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating Solar with the Distribution System

As part of the U.S. SunShot Initiative—aiming to make PV electricity cost-competitive with conventional generation by 2020—this report analyzes the impact of high-penetration variable generation on the distribution grid, it demonstrates that in most cases DG can be safely integrated at much higher levels than interconnection standards allow. By streamlining interconnection processes, deploying advanced inverter functionalities, and coordinating DGPV, upwards of 350 GW can be hosted on the U.S. grid with little additional hardware. The report also outlines challenges to interconnection such as voltage regulation, power flow, and protection issues. It then studies the role of storage and complementary technologies to overcome reliability constraints. This research is applicable outside of the U.S. in demonstrating how to maximize an existing grid for DG.

Emerging Issues and Challenges in Integrating Solar with the Distribution System - Read More…

Grid Integration of Distributed Solar Photovoltaics in India: A Review of Technical Aspects, Best Practices and the Way Forward

In anticipation of significant growth in DPV in India, this report reviews policies and regulations for DG; identifies technical challenges to significantly increasing grid-connected DPV; and makes recommendations for addressing power quality, safety, grid stability, and distribution system operation issues. The report provides an example of a country-specific review and synthesis of best practices to inform national and state-level technical and grid code specifications, advanced inverter functionalities, meter technology deployment, certification, and testing processes.

Grid Integration of Distributed Solar Photovoltaics in India: A Review of Technical Aspects, Best Practices and the Way Forward - Read More…

Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations

DPV can be designed to supply electricity during grid outages. This paper presents approaches that specifically support resiliency through design of PV systems utilizing community energy storage, solar-diesel hybrid systems, and micro-grids. The paper also considers policies and regulations to support resiliency.

Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations - Read More…

Advanced Inverter Functions to Support High Levels of Distributed Solar

Technological innovations are supporting increased DPV penetration levels. One important innovation involves the use of advanced inverter functionality to address PV grid integration challenges. In many cases these functionalities only require software and protocol updates to inverters currently in use. The report describes the use of advanced inverters to support voltage and frequency level control as DG comes on and off-line. Policy and regulatory considerations to support advanced inverter deployment are also presented in the paper.

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Time in the Sun: The Challenge of High PV Penetration in the German Electric Grid

Germany leads the world in deployment of DPV, with PV generation contributing approximately 40% of peak power demand during some hours of the year. This article outlines the impacts of high PV deployment in Germany on grid stability and power flows in the transmission and distribution system. It also highlights practical solutions that Germany has implemented to support frequency and voltage control and reduce congestion, and suggests new voltage-control strategies.

Time in the Sun: The Challenge of High PV Penetration in the German Electric Grid - Read More…

Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper: A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources

Traditional interconnection processes evaluate the impacts a distributed generator has on system safety, reliability, and power quality. This concept paper introduces “Integrated Distribution Planning,” an emerging alternative methodology designed to enable DPV. In the report, utilities and distribution system operators proactively study the hosting capacity of distribution circuits, the ability of these circuits to accommodate growth in DG, and any necessary infrastructure upgrades; all in advance of receiving interconnection requests from generators.

Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper: A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources - Read More…

IEEE Draft Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated Electric Power Systems Interfaces

IEEE 1547 was introduced in 2003 when DER penetration was low in most places. As some regions like Germany, California, and Hawaii reach higher levels of DG penetrations, alterations to IEEE 1547 are required. IEEE has fast-tracked the development of a full-revision of 1547 to maintain cross-system compatibility; drafts of the new version enhance the capabilities of DER to provide grid support, voltage ride-through, and reactive power modes for generators in high-penetration contexts. The updated version is currently an active draft, the full version will be released in 2018. 1547.1 provides engineers with interconnection system testing guidelines and will also be updated. Both 1547 and 1547.1 are recognized by UL 1741 and are to be used in conjunction.

IEEE Draft Standard for Interconnection and Interoperability of Distributed Energy Resources with Associated Electric Power Systems Interfaces - Read More…

IEEE 1547 Revision, Will You Be Ready?

IEEE 1547 was introduced in 2003 when DER penetration was low in most places. As some regions like Germany, California, and Hawaii reach higher levels of DG penetrations, alterations to IEEE 1547 are required. IEEE has fast-tracked the development of a full-revision of 1547 to maintain cross-system compatibility; drafts of the new version enhance the capabilities of DER to provide grid support, voltage ride-through, and reactive power modes for generators in high-penetration contexts. The updated version is currently an active draft, the full version will be released in 2018. 1547.1 provides engineers with interconnection system testing guidelines and will also be updated. Both 1547 and 1547.1 are recognized by UL 1741 and are to be used in conjunction.

IEEE 1547 Revision, Will You Be Ready? - Read More…

Standard for Inverters, Converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use with Distributed Energy Resources

UL 1741 provides certification requirements for DG equipment that operates according to the parameters established in IEEE 1547. The standard is used together with IEEE 1547 to provide comprehensive requirements for DG equipment and development.

Standard for Inverters, Converters, Controllers and Interconnection System Equipment for Use with Distributed Energy Resources - Read More…

Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Website

To enable informed decision-making and planning related to increasing levels of DPV, the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) facilitates knowledge sharing among its members about DPV interconnection practices, research, and replicable innovations. While the Collaborative primarily works with utilities and other stakeholders in the United States, its website hosts a collection of presentations, webinars, and reports that provide more broadly applicable information and case studies on interconnection practices.

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Teaching the “Duck” to Fly, Second Edition

High penetration of DPV often leads to the infamous “duck curve,” the formation of two daily peaks in the morning and evening when PV is not available. This easy to read report assesses a variety of options to mitigate the “duck curve” from targeted efficiency, time of use rate design, storage, demand response, balancing, and complementing DPV with peak-oriented renewables. Implantation of these recommendations flattens the demand curve, allowing for additional DPV.

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