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This white paper identifies guiding principles that can assist power system planners in conducting analysis of grid reliability impacts associated with meeting carbon dioxide emission reduction targets, with specific reference to the United States’ Clean Power Plan (CPP). The CPP, issued in August 2015 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, sets limits on carbon dioxide emissions from existing fossil fuel-fired generators, and requires states to consider grid reliability impacts in their compliance plans. This white paper aims to promote robust analysis of the reliability impacts of the CPP by recommending guiding principles related to: 1) transparency and stakeholder engagement; 2) study methodology and interactions between studies; 3) study inputs, sensitivities and probabilistic analysis; and 4) tools and techniques. Though specifically crafted with reference to the CPP, the principles and analysis considerations presented in this white paper are generally applicable to other grid integration studies in different power system contexts.
Located in Integration Topics / Grid Integration Studies / Grid Integration Studies folder
This report discusses system operations and investment in liberalized electricity markets in which greater variable RE and energy efficiency resources are being deployed. It overviews current and foreseen challenges and possible policy and regulatory solutions to improve the cost efficiency and flexibility of the grid. Chapter 3 (pg. 36) outlines operational challenges associated with significant variable RE penetration.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report, commissioned by the Western Governors’ Association in the United States, provides an assessment of system operational measures that could reduce costs of wind and solar integration to the end-users. The report identifies challenges to adopting these measures and recommendations for action at the state level. Especially useful are the high-level and accessible explanations of these operational measures.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report details case studies of Spain, Germany, Denmark, and several balancing areas in North America and looks at the specific systems operational measures undertaken to integrate variable RE. The case studies examine how systems operators improved their situational awareness, ability to assess real-time reliability and risks, and decision support processes.
Located in Integration Topics / System Operations Improvements / System Operations Improvements folder
This report presents a brief introduction to the IRP process as it has been implemented in the United States and describes the purpose and use of the IRP process. The report presents several case studies of IRPs and summarizes how they differ in terms of planning horizon, frequency of updates, representation of existing resources and planned retirements, and relationship with long-term procurement processes. The case studies include examples of best-practices for including renewable energy and energy efficiency considerations in the IRP process.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
This report, written as a summary for power system regulators and operators of Mexico, examines key practices of different U.S. jurisdictions for evaluating and approving generation and transmission expansion projects. The report includes a discussion about cost-benefit analysis to inform decision–making and a discussion about reliability standards and how to model reliability in the bulk electric power system in the context of increased adoption of variable renewable resources. Section 3.3 reviews approaches to modeling dispatch, capacity expansion, and power flow, with an emphasis on accurate representation of variable renewable resources, and Table 3 provides samples of power system models in use in North America.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
This article provides an overview of the traditional power system planning process in the United States, summarizes how legal authority for transmission planning is allocated between states and the U.S. government, and evaluates the challenges and solutions that state regulators have encountered with planning new transmission for renewable energy development. In addition to a discussion about the important merits of increased balancing area cooperation for system operations and transmission planning, the article includes a detailed review of the Renewable Energy Zones transmission planning process as implemented in Texas’ Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) approach.
Located in Integration Topics / Planning for Grid Integration / Planning for Grid Integration folder
India has a target of 40 GW of rooftop PV by 2022. The study intends to provide an overview of the characteristics of the Indian power system and its challenges with regard to a significant increase in rooftop PV, as well as a template for distribution companies on how to manage rising PV shares, which studies to conduct and which technology options to select.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
As part of the U.S. SunShot Initiative—aiming to make PV electricity cost-competitive with conventional generation by 2020—this report analyzes the impact of high-penetration variable generation on the distribution grid, it demonstrates that in most cases DG can be safely integrated at much higher levels than interconnection standards allow. By streamlining interconnection processes, deploying advanced inverter functionalities, and coordinating DGPV, upwards of 350 GW can be hosted on the U.S. grid with little additional hardware. The report also outlines challenges to interconnection such as voltage regulation, power flow, and protection issues. It then studies the role of storage and complementary technologies to overcome reliability constraints. This research is applicable outside of the U.S. in demonstrating how to maximize an existing grid for DG.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
In anticipation of significant growth in DPV in India, this report reviews policies and regulations for DG; identifies technical challenges to significantly increasing grid-connected DPV; and makes recommendations for addressing power quality, safety, grid stability, and distribution system operation issues. The report provides an example of a country-specific review and synthesis of best practices to inform national and state-level technical and grid code specifications, advanced inverter functionalities, meter technology deployment, certification, and testing processes.
Located in Topics & Resources / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations / Grid Planning, Integration, & Operations folder
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